|xLanguage :: 6-9 :: Word Studyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxhome|
|xTable of Contents:|
|xScheme for Presentation|
Prerequisite: Language exercises
in the Children's House.
- Leading them to the place reserved for the charts, invite one child to look for the chart with "Suffix i" written at the top.
- Ask him to read the first word in the first row and, returning to his table, to "compose" it with one of the movable alphabets. The child goes back and forth, remembers the words of that row and "composes" them, one under the other, in a column.
Example: teach teacher teaching
is formed by the child in this way:
- The other children of this group do the same with other rows of their choice using the same alphabet.
- Invite the children to read what they composed and to see if there is something, in their column, that does not change, and if there is something that changes.
- Ask the children to remove the part of each word that has changed and replace it with letters of an alphabet of a different color.
- One child now brings the chart to check the spelling. [Never allow an incorrect spelling to remain on the table. After composing the word, the child must always check with the chart - this makes a direct correction by the teacher unnecessary.]
- Explain: " The part of the word that changes is called suffix. Suffix comes from Latin suffixum, a form of the verb suffigere, meaning to fasten beneath. These little changes are attached at the end of the word."
- Show the children how to collect the letters and to return them to their proper compartments.
- At a later stage the child works with the chart at his table.
Follow up work: The children use the other rows of the chart as indicated. They can form with the movable alphabets, other sets of words which show a given permanent part and the suffixes which can be added to it.
Encourage the children to write their work paying particular attention to their handwriting.
WORD STUDY: THE ROOT OF THE WORD
- ... "This part that does not change is called the root of the word. It is something like the root of a plant - other parts come out from it"
- Conduct a second and third period of the lesson asking the child to show you "the suffix"..."the root" of different words formed with the movable alphabet. Then, pointing to one of those parts ask for its name ... "what is the name of this part of the word?"...
N.B. A dark color alphabet is used to represent the root of the word.
Follow up work:
Read some words from the chart and ask the child to tell you which part is the root of the word and which part is the suffix.
[Given after the study of the root]
[root] + [suffix] [implies]
Follow up work: The child is invited to try different words affixing suffixes to them and discuss the meaning added to the word by each suffix. The emphasis here is in the exploration of language; no scientific accuracy is either needed or to be expected.
N.B. When the child is familiar with the parts of speech and their classifications, the suffix is to be presented as causing a word to change its function. For example, the word 'quick' [adjective] becomes an adverb by the addition of the suffix 'ly.'
From this presentation, new follow up activities will result enriching the child's understanding of his language.
- [Give other examples]
- From here on, you follow the pattern of the suffix presentation.
- Discuss the meaning of each word with the child or ask him to look in the dictionary.
- Explain: "This time
the meaning of the word changes because something has been added
to the beginning of the root. This small part added to the root
is called "prefix".
Follow up activity: The child works with the other words in the chart and continues looking for the words which use a prefix. Encourage the child to write up his work in beautiful handwriting.
Rather than using the movable alphabet the child may use a black colored pencil for the root of the word and a colored pencil for the prefix or alternately underline the different parts of the word with the colored pencils.
WORD STUDY: COMPOUND WORDS
- ... "This a matchbox
... what is it for? How do you know it is for matches?. Is box
an object? Is match an object?
- [Bringing the alphabets] ... "Form the name with two different colors".
- Do the same with other boxes. The children, having had the experience of this presentation, can see why these types of words are 'compound words'. They name only one object but the name itself is formed with more than one word.
Follow up work: The child continues to work with all the words of the chart. He looks for other compound words and can play a game of finding more compound words ...
- Let's choose a word, e.g., "light". How many compound words can we make with it? [sunlight, spotlight, daylight, etc]
Choose another word. Continue to work in this way until the child understands the meaning of compound words. Encourage the child to write the words paying particular attention to spelling and handwriting.
WORD STUDY: SYNONYMS
N.B. Most of this work can be done with the Verb Grammar Boxes and the related Commands, even though the proper place for the study of SYNONYMS is this WORD STUDY section.
Prerequisites: Language exercises in the Children's House. This exercise is parallel to the exercises in Affixes.
Material: A dictionary suitable to the child's reading ability and understanding.
- "Let's play a game of words. Who can think of a word similar in meaning to 'pretty'?...[nice, cute, beautiful, handsome, etc.]
- "All these words are
close to each other in meaning, yet we use them differently:
- Continue the game applying the words suggested by the children to different situations ...
- They should conclude that, even though the meaning is somehow similar, we should make a wise choice in applying them.
- Explain:..." Words which
are close to each other in meaning are called SYNONYMS, from
Greek 'syn', together and 'onoma', name.
Follow up work: The child can play this game with his friends using different words and finding alternative ways to express a similar idea.
The teacher offers examples
with synonyms asking the child if the similarity in meaning of
those words makes the ideas more interesting and clearer:
Encourage the child to pay particular attention to grammar, spelling and handwriting.
WORD STUDY: ANTONYMS
Antonyms (Greek 'opposite'
- Follow the same procedure as for synonyms. This game would involve finding words that are opposite in meaning.
|xHomonyms, Homophones, Homographs|
WORD STUDY: HOMONYMS, HOMOPHONES, HOMOGRAPHS
Homonym: a word of the same spelling or sound as another but with a different meaning, e.g., grate (fireplace), grate (to rub), great (large).
Homophone: a word with the same sound as another but with a different spelling, e.g., sun, son
Homograph: a word that is written like another but has a different meaning or origin, e.g., bat (a flying animal), bat (for striking a ball).
Purpose: Awareness of the existence of words which, having the same or similar sound, may be spelled differently in order to understand their meaning.
Prerequisite: Initial work with Synonyms and Antonyms .
Materials: Cards to be prepared by the teacher.
- "Can you repeat the words having the same sound?"
- "Do they mean the same thing?"
- "They have different meaning and different spelling also.
- "These words are called HOMONYMS, from Greek 'homos, the same and 'onoma, name."
- Invite the child to write short phrases or sentences with these words.
Follow up work: The child takes some examples of homonyms to construct short sentences taking particular care of the appropriate meaning and spelling and taking great care with his handwriting.
Purpose: to further explore the components of words and how they relate through their root.
Prerequisite: Extensive work with Affixes.
Materials: Same as for Affixes.
"This group of letters is not always at the beginning of the word but seems to be the most important part of it". "Do you remember the name of this part? -The root- Let's form it with the movable alphabet darkest in color."
"Are there any prefixes? -Form them in another color."
"Are there any suffixes? -"Choose a third color to form them.
- "Since all these words have a common root, we say that they are a word family much the same as a human family is a group of people born from the same parents .
All these words form a family born from the root theo - sometimes reduced to a mere th - which means GOD. All of them imply a divine element in their meaning which, by means of prefixes and suffixes, becomes unique and individualized.
Theology: The study of the
nature of God.
Polytheism: doctrine sustaining
the existence of many gods.
All these words form a family born from the Greek root morphe, form changed through Latin into forma, meaning also form.
Morphology: the study of form
and structure .
Follow up work: Invite the child to work with the chart and with the dictionary. The child records his findings. Interesting discussions originate from this investigation. The emphasis should be on the child's exploration of word families not in the absolute accuracy of his findings.
After using the alphabets for
the first exercises, the child
N.B. This presentation incorporates all the aspects of the word study, and is suitable for children about nine years of age and onward.